Year 1792 (MDCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar).
- The Baptist Missionary Society is founded in Kettering, England.
- Dominique-Jean Larrey, chief surgeon of the Grand Armee of France, creates the first ambulance wagons specifically designed as ambulances.
- Tipu Sultan invades Kerala in India, but is repulsed.
- Franz Xaver, Baron Von Zach, an astronomer, publishes The Tables of the Sun, an essential early work for navigation.
- Claude Chappe successfully demonstrates the first semaphore line, between Paris and Lille.
- William Murdoch begins experimenting with gas lighting.
- George Anschutz constructs the first blast furnace in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
- Thomas Holcroft produces the play Road to Ruin in London.
- Barthelemy Catherine Joubert, later general, becomes sub-lieutenant.
- Johann Georg Albrechtberger becomes Kapellmeister in Vienna.
- The State Street Corporation is founded.
- Shiloh Meeting House, predecessor of Shiloh United Methodist Church in Lynchburg, Virginia, is founded.
- Mary Wollstonecraft's A Vindication of the Rights of Woman is published.
- January 12 - Johann Arfvedson, Swedish chemist (d. 1841)
- February 10 - Captain Frederick Marryat, British author (d. 1848)
- February 17 - Karl Ernst von Baer, German naturalist (d. 1876)
- February 29 - Gioacchino Rossini, Italian composer (d. 1868)
- March 3 - Johann Karl Ludwig Gieseler, German church historian (d. 1854)
- March 4 - Samuel Slocum, American inventor (d. 1861)
- March 7 - John Herschel, English mathematician and astronomer (d. 1871)
- April 1 - Karl Gottlob Zumpt, German scholar (d. 1894)
- April 23 - John Thomas Romney Robinson, Irish astronomer and physicist (d. 1882)
- April 25 - John Keble, British poet (d. 1866)
- May 13 - Pope Pius IX (d. 1878)
- May 15 - James Mayer Rothschild, German-born banker (d. 1868)
- May 17 - Anne Isabella Milbanke, English wife of George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron
- May 18 - Margaret Ann Neve, supercentenarian (d. 1903)
- May 21 - Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis, French engineer and scientist (d. 1843)
- June 15 - John Pascoe Fawkner, pioneer and newspaper publisher in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (d. 1869)
- June 16 - John Linnell, British painter (d. 1882)
- July 7 - William Henry Smith, British businessman (d. 1865)
- July 10 - George M. Dallas, U.S. Senator and Vice President of the United States (d. 1864)
- June 21 - Ferdinand Christian Baur, German theologian (d. 1860)
- August 4 - Percy Bysshe Shelley, British poet (d. 1822)
- August 13 - Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen of William IV of the United Kingdom (d. 1849)
- August 18 - John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1878)
- September 19 - William Backhouse Astor, Sr., American business tycoon (d. 1875)
- September 26 - William Hobson, first Governor of New Zealand (d. 1842)
- October 29 - Thomas Livingstone Mitchell, Explorer and Surveyor-General of New South Wales, Australia (d. 1855)
- November 11 - Mary Anne Evans, wife of Benjamin Disraeli (d. 1872)
- November 28 - Victor Cousin, French philosopher (d. 1867)
- December 1 - Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky, Russian mathematician (d. 1856)
- December 6 - William II of the Netherlands (d. 1849)
- date unknown - Matteo Carcassi, Italian musician and composer (d. 1853)
- February 15- John Witherspoon
- February 23 - Sir Joshua Reynolds, British painter (b. 1723)
- March 1 - Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1747)
- March 3 - Robert Adam, British architect (b. 1728)
- March 10 - John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1713)
- March 29 - King Gustav III of Sweden (assassinated) (b. 1746)
- April 3
- April 4 - James Sykes, American politician (b. 1725)
- April 14 - Maximilian Hell, Slovakian astronomer (b. 1720)
- April 23 - Karl Friedrich Bahrdt, German theologian and adventurer (b. 1741)
- April 30 - John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, English statesman (b. 1718)
- May 10 - John Stevens, American delegate to the Continental Congress
- May 12 - Charles Simon Favart, French dramatist (b. 1710)
- May 24 - George Brydges Rodney, 1st Baron Rodney, British naval officer (b. 1718)
- June 4 - John Burgoyne, British general (b. 1723)
- July 3 - Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick (b. 1721)
- July 18 - John Paul Jones, American naval captain (b. 1747)
- July 29 - René Nicolas Charles Augustin de Maupeou, Chancellor of France (b. 1714)
- August 5 - Frederick North, Lord North, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1732)
- August 25 - Jacques Cazotte, French writer (b. 1719)
- September 3 - Princesse de Lamballe, French friend of Marie Antoinette (murdered)
- September 8 - Charles d'Abancourt, French statesman (b. 1758)
- September 18 - August Gottlieb Spangenberg, German religious leader (b. 1704)
- September 25 - Adam Gottlob Moltke, Danish statesman (b. 1710)
- October 7 - George Mason, American patriot (b. 1725)
- October 22 - Guillaume Le Gentil, French astronomer (b. 1725)
- October 28
- December 15 - Joseph Martin Kraus, Swedish composer (b. 1756)
- date unknown - Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, Arabic preacher (b. 1703)