Year 1783 (MDCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar.
January - June
July - December
- July 16 - Grants of land in Canada to American loyalists are announced.
- July 24 - The Treaty of Georgievsk is signed between the Imperial Russia and the Kingdom of Kartli and Kakheti (Georgia).
- August 5 - Mount Asama erupts, causing turmoil in Edo period Japan.
- August 18 - A large fireball passes on a thousand-mile track across the North Sea, the United Kingdom and France, prompting scientific discussion.
- August 27 - Le Globe - Jacques Charles and Les Frères Robert launched the world's first hydrogen-filled balloon in Paris.
- September 3 - American Revolutionary War - Treaty of Paris: A treaty between the United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain is signed in Paris, formally ending the war.
- September 9 - Dickinson College was chartered in Carlisle, Pennsylvania.
- October 3 - The Waterford Glassware Factory begins production in Waterford City, Ireland.
- November 2 - In Rocky Hill, New Jersey, US General George Washington gives his Farewell Address to the Army.
- November 21 - In Paris, Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent, marquis d'Arlandes, make the first untethered hot air balloon flight (flight time: 25 minutes, Maximum height: 900 m).
- November 24 - In Spain, the Cedula of Population is signed, stating that anyone who will swear fealty to Spain and is of the Roman Catholic faith is welcome to populate Trinidad and Tobago.
- November 25 - American Revolutionary War: The last British troops leave New York City 3 months after the signing of the Treaty of Paris.
- November 30 - A 5.3 magnitude earthquake struck New Jersey.
- December 1 - La Charlière - Jacques Charles and Nicolas-Louis Robert made the first manned flight in a hydrogen-filled balloon in Paris.
- December 4 - At Fraunces Tavern in New York City, U.S. General George Washington formally bids his officers farewell.
- January 7 - William Tans'ur, English hymnist (b. 1700)
- February 6 - Capability Brown, English landscape gardener (b. 1716)
- March 23 - Charles Carroll, American lawyer and delegate to the Continental Congress (b. 1723)
- March 30 - William Hunter, Scottish anatomist (b. 1718)
- March 31 - Nikita Ivanovich Panin, Russian statesman (b. 1718)
- April 16
- May 23 - James Otis, American lawyer and patriot (b. 1725)
- September 18
- October 29 - Jean le Rond d'Alembert, French mathematician (b. 1717)
- November - Carolus Linnaeus the Younger, Swedish naturalist (b. 1741)
- November 22 - John Hanson, American delegate to the Continental Congress (b. 1715)
- November 23 - Yoriyuki Arima, Japanese mathematician (b. 1714)
- December 13 - Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin, Swedish astronomer (b. 1717)
- December 16 - William James, British naval commander (b. 1720)